Geert Hofstede - Originator and Licensor of the CWQ

ITAP licenses the CWQ™ from ODE Consulting® Pte. Ltd. ODE Consulting and its licensees are among the very few companies worldwide endorsed by Dr. Hofstede and approved to represent his research. According to Dr. Hofstede, "This [approval] is due to their professionalism and deep understanding of my work.”


The author of Culture's Consequences, the most important work in the field of cross-cultural quantitative research, Prof. Geert Hofstede has quantitatively analyzed how workplace values are influenced by culture. Geert Hofstede analyzed a large data base of employee values scores collected by IBM between 1967 and 1973 covering more than 70 countries, from which he first used the 40 largest only, and afterwards extended the analysis to 50 countries and 3 regions. In the editions of Geert Hofstede's work since 2001, scores are listed for 74 countries and regions, partly based on replications and extensions of the IBM study on different international populations.

Subsequent studies validating the earlier results have included commercial airline pilots and students in 23 countries, civil service managers in 14 counties, 'up-market' consumers in 15 countries and 'elites' in 19 countries.

Geert Hofstede completed both a classical and a technical education. He holds a Master's level degree in Mechanical Engineering from Delft Technical University. He worked in different Dutch companies in roles varying from production worker to plant manager. After a part-time study he obtained a cum laude Doctorate in Social Psychology at Groningen University. From 1965 to 1971 he founded and managed the Personnel Research department of IBM Europe; he was involved in research in nearly all countries of Western Europe and the Middle East. He subsequently became a faculty member and researcher at IMD, Switzerland; INSEAD, France; EIASM, Belgium and IIASA, Austria. From 1980 to 1983 he returned to industry as a Director of Human Resources of Fasson Europe, Leiden.

Through the publication in the USA of his scholarly book Culture's Consequences (1980, new edition 2001), he became a founder of comparative intercultural research; his ideas are used worldwide. His popular book Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (3rd edition, 2010) has so far appeared in 17 languages including Chinese, Japanese and Korean. He is the most cited Dutch author in the Social Science Citation Index. He has taught at universities in Hong Kong, Hawaii and Australia. He is a Doctor Honoris Causa of Nyenrode University and of three other European universities.

Before his retirement in 1993, Dr. Hofstede taught organizational anthropology and international management at the University of Limburg, Maastricht, and then was appointed the first director of the Institute for Research on International Co-operation (IRIC). He is also a Fellow of the Academy of Management in the USA, one of few non-American members.